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Natural Science

The program is designed for students to receive an Associate in Science Degree upon completion of the requirements. The program will provide students with a basic understanding of natural resources and their management with an emphasis on the natural resources of the Leech Lake Reservation, using both Western science and Indigenous American knowledge. Natural resources include land, water, air, plant and animal resources and their relationship to people. Graduates of the Associate in Science in Natural Science can transition into a four-year Natural Science Bachelor of Science degree.

62-64 Credits

Core Requirements (30 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
ANI 100 Introduction to Anishinaabe Studies 3  
BIO 111 General Biology & Lab 4  
EDU 102 Path to Success 3  
ENGL 101 English Composition I 3 EDU 102
ENGL 102 English Composition II 3 ENGL 101
ITECH 100 Computer Applications I 3  
OJI 101 Speaking Ojibwe I 4  
SPCH 201 Speech and Communications 3 ENGL 101

Natural Sciences (3 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
BIO 112 General Biology II & Lab 4 BIO 111

Mathematical/Logical Reasoning (3 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
Or MATH 155 Advanced College Algebra 3 MATH 150
Or MATH 210 Pre-Calculus 3 MATH 155
Or MATH 250 Calculus 3 MATH 210

History and Social Sciences (3 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
HIS 101 U.S. and Indigenous American History 1830-Present 3  
Or POLSC 225 Treaty Law and Tribal Sovereignty 3  
Or PSY 100 General Psychology 3  
Or PSY 140 Developmental Psychology 3  
Or PSY 200 Indigenous American Psychology 3  
Or PSY 220 Abnormal Psychology 3 PSY 100
Or GEOG 200 Cultural Geography 3  
Or SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology 3  

Humanities and Arts (6 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
ENGL 250 Contemporary American Indian Literature 3 ENGL 102
AND/or MUS 250 History of Anishinaabe Music and Dance 3  
AND/or ART 100 Intro to Traditional & Contemporary Art 3  

Choose another course from above or below.

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
ART 102 Introduction to Pottery 3  
Or ART 107 Drawing I 3  
Or ART 108 Sculpture 3  
Or ART 109 Watercolor Painting 3  
Or ART 110 Acrylic and Oil Painting 3 ART 107
Or ART 113 Jingle Dress Making 2  
Or ART 114 Star Quilt Making 2  
Or ART 116 Introduction to Beadwork 3  
Or ART 204 Introduction to Moccasin Making 3 ART 100
Or ENGL 200 Literature and the Environment 3 ENGL 102
Or ENGL 220 Creative Writing 3 ENGL 101
Or ENGL 299 Special Topics in Literature 3 ENGL 102
Or PHIL 200 Indigenous American Philosophy 3  

Human Diversity (3 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
ANI 200 Indigenous American Leadership 3  
Or HIS 101 U.S. and Indigenous American History 1830-Present 3  
Or HIS 150 History of Leech Lake 3  
Or SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology 3  
Or SOC 200 Indigenous American Women 3  
Or PHIL 200 Indigenous American Philosophy 3  

People and the Environment (3 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
BIO 200 Ethno-biology 3  

Natural Science Requirements (10 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
BIO 140 Ecology 3  
BIO 204 Environmental Science 3  
CHEM 111 General Chemistry I & Lab 4 CHEM 100

Natural Science STEM Elective Credits (6 Credits):

Course Code Course Title Credits Pre-Req
BIO 130 Wildlife Biology & Lab 4  
BIO 294 Science Research Project I 1-3  
BIO 295 Science Research Project II 1-3 BIO 294
BIO 297 Biology Internship 1  
CHEM 100 Foundations of Chemistry 4  
CHEM 112 General Chemistry II & Lab 4 CHEM 111
FOR 101 Introduction to Forestry 3  
FOR 110 Woodland Plants 4  
FOR 130 Intro to Field and GIS Skills 2  
FOR 210 Freshwater Studies 4 BIO 140
FOR 230 Dendrology 3 FOR 101
FOR 240 Survey and Measurement 2 FOR 130
FOR 260 GIS Applications 3 FOR 130
ITECH 150 Computer Applications II 3 ITECH 100
ITECH 190 Introduction to Computer Science 3 ITECH 150
MATH 150 College Algebra 3  
MATH 155 Advanced College Algebra 3 MATH 150
MATH 170 Statistics 3 MATH 150
MATH 210 Pre-Calculus 3 MATH155
MATH 215 Trigonometry 3 MATH 155
MATH 250 Calculus I 3 MATH 210
PSCI 110 Intro to Earth Science & Lab 4  
PSCI 150 Indigenous Astronomy 3  

ANI 100 (3 Credits)

Introduction to Anishinaabe Studies

This course introduces students to the content areas of the Anishinaabe curriculum. The word Anishinaabe refers to all Indigenous people of North America. Content includes an overview of Anishinaabe culture, history, and philosophy, federal Indian [sic] policy, land and environment, gender roles, and contemporary social issues.

BIO 111 (4 credits)

General Biology I

This course is an introduction to animal and plant biology, including traditional herbs and plants used by the Anishinaabe people. Emphasis of this course is on studies from a whole system perspective. It includes principles of biodiversity and ecology and their relationship to humans. Both Indigenous and Western scientific views will be explored. Lecture and laboratory

EDU 102 (3 credits)

Path to Success

This course is designed to help students negotiate the complexities of college; from selecting classes and completing degree requirements to finding one's way through the financial aid maze. Study skills such as effective reading strategies, note-taking, and time management will be taught. The course will infuse English language writing and reading skills by incorporating best practices throughout the course. Opportunities for students to apply these skills in their current courses and texts will be provided. In addition, students will have the opportunity to explore Anishinaabe values and how these values apply to their own lives.

ENGL 101 (3 credits)

English Composition I

This course reviews the basics of sentence construction and essay development; emphasizes style, organization, coherence, and persuasion in written discourse; and provides extensive practice in communication skills: reading, critical thinking, speaking, listening, and writing. College Placement Test required (students not scoring a passing grade on the exam must successfully complete EDU 102 prior to enrolling in ENGL 101).

ENGL 102 (3 credits)

English Composition II

This course reviews components of ENGL 101 and refines general composition skills; emphasizes expository and argumentative writing, including researched, documented essays; and provides a study of research methods and sources, with emphasis on analytical reading. Prerequisite: ENGL 101.

ITECH 100 (3 credits)

Computer Applications I

This course will cover the basic use of computers. Topics include the history and impact of computers, computer systems, and an introduction to hardware and software applications, such as operating systems, e-mail, internet browsers, search engines, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, and presentation graphics.

OJI 101 (4 credits)

Speaking Ojibwe I

This course emphasizes values, learning the sounds of Ojibwe, developing introductory conversational skills, and understanding the concepts of language with the goal of using language in everyday life in Ojibwe communities.

SPCH 201 (3 credits)

Speech and Communications

This course will teach speaking and listening skills that will be reinforced through multiple opportunities for interpersonal communication, public speaking, discussion, and the oral tradition of Ojibwe people. They will gain experience in critical thinking, reading, and writing, as well as in public speaking. Prerequisite: ENGL 101.

BIO 112 (4 credits)

General Biology II

This course is an introduction to the structure and function of living systems, focusing on unifying biological principles such as the scientific method, cell theory, cell structure and function, genetics and inheritance, and evolution. Lecture and laboratory. Required for A.A. STEM emphasis. Prerequisite: BIO 111.

CHEM 100 (4 credits)

Foundations of Chemistry

This course will cover the basic principles and concepts of inorganic, organic, and biological chemistry. Topics will include states of matter, measurements, elements, atoms and the periodic table, chemical bonding, chemical equations, gases, liquids and solids, energy and equilibrium reaction, acid-base and oxidation reduction. Lecture and laboratory

CHEM 112 (4 credits)

General Chemistry II

This course is an advanced study of inorganic chemistry. Topics include in-depth mathematical formulas of chemistry and their manipulation, acid-base chemistry, complex reactions and their prediction, thermodynamics, nuclear chemistry, metallurgy, and an introduction to organic chemistry. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: CHEM 100 or equivalent.

MATH 150 (3 credits)

College Algebra

This course includes algebraic concepts including linear, quadratic, rational and absolute value equations and inequalities; function notation; complex numbers; graphs of relations and functions including lines and parabolas. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or MATH 093 with a grade of C or better.

MATH 155 (3 credits)

Advanced College Algebra

This course covers functions, including polynomial, rational, inverse, exponential, and logarithmic; systems of equations and inequalities, and matrices. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or MATH 150 with a grade of C or better.

MATH 210 (3 credits)

Pre-Calculus I

This course provides the essential mathematical background needed in calculus. Topics include equation solving, functions (including polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric), identities, applications, and parametric equations. A graphing calculator is required. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or MATH 155 with a grade of C or better.

MATH 250 (4 credits)

Calculus I

This course includes a review of functions, with emphasis on the graphing and behavior of functions. Limits are introduced and developed. The derivative of a function is defined and applied to algebraic and trigonometric functions. Applications involving maximum, minimum, related rates, curve plotting, and the mean value theorem are presented. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or MATH 210 with a grade of C or better.

HIS 101 (3 credits)

U.S. and Indigenous American History, 1830-Present

This course surveys the history of the Indigenous American from the year 1830 to the present day. It provides an overview of the major themes and trends in Indian history, supplemented by case studies from a number of regions and readings that illuminate particular issues. The overall context of the course is the expansion of the U.S., the "Indian policies" adopted by the U.S. government, but the primary focus is the historical experience of Indian peoples and their struggles to retain the cultures and autonomy while adapting to great changes in the conditions of their lives.

POLSC 225 (3 credits)

Treaty Law and Tribal Sovereignty

This course is an introduction to treaty law and history and analysis of major treaties affecting the Anishinaabe nation. Course draws on actual treaty documents and on case law, which explicates those documents. Theory and practice of self-determination for indigenous peoples and tribal sovereignty are emphasized.

PSY 100 (3 credits)

General Psychology

This course provides an overview of the field of psychology. The course explores the history and development of psychology, and the major theoretical viewpoints. This exploration includes: the biological basis of behavior; sensation and perception; learning, memory, and intelligence; motivation and emotion; development lifespan; personality; psychological disorders; and social behavior. The course focuses on critical thinking skills and pays particular attention to the role of culture in psychological processes, research and study.

PSY 140 (3 credits)

Developmental Psychology

This course examines contemporary research, theory and everyday applications, in the study of human development over the lifespan. We will focus on continuity and change within the individual in areas of cognition, personality, social interaction, and physical development. Critical thinking skills and the role of culture in developmental processes, research and study will be emphasized.

PSY 200 (3 credits)

Indigenous American Psychology

This course covers the concept of holistic lifestyles, society and worldview as practiced and perceived by Indigenous American leaders and Anishinaabe scroll documents. Examination of Indigenous behavior, medicine, ceremonies, rituals, and the definition of metaphysical psychology will be covered.

PSY 220 (3 credits)

Abnormal Psychology

This course examines contemporary research and theory pertaining to the nature, causes, diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology. The course will focus on how genetics, disease and environmental factors contribute to specific psychological disorders. Prerequisite: PSY 100 or PSY 140.

GEOG 200 (3 credits)

Cultural Geography

This course is an exploration of the interaction of the earth, plants, animals, and people as they create the web of life. Examination of the cultural meanings of place as developed by indigenous peoples and how those ideas compare to and conflict with modern ideas of place.

SOC 101 (3 credits)

Introduction to Sociology

This course provides an introduction to sociology as a way of viewing and understanding the world. Sociology is a field of study that explains social, political, and economic phenomena in terms of social structures, social forces, and group relations. Important sociological topics, including socialization, culture, stratification, deviance, race and ethnicity, and poverty will be explored.

ENGL 250 (3 credits)

Contemporary Indigenous American Literature

This course includes a critical study of selected works of contemporary Indigenous American writers, including novels, short stories, autobiographies, plays, poetry, and speeches. Prerequisites: ENGL 102.

MUS 250 (3 credits)

History of Anishinaabe Music and Dance

This course introduces students to the great variety of Anishinaabe music and dance styles from around the United States and Canada. Course content focuses on the creation and function of the powwow drum and dance styles within Anishinaabe community and culture. No previous musical or dance experience is required.

ART 100 (3 credits)

Introduction to Traditional/Contemporary Art

This course teaches students an appreciation for, and skills in, both traditional and contemporary art media, design, beadwork, and techniques of basic drawing, painting, and carving. Students will also engage in critical analysis of art work. Course fee: $60.

ART 102 (3 credits)

Introduction to Pottery

This course introduces students to traditional and contemporary pottery techniques. Hand-building will be the main focus. Videos and demonstrations will help students understand the methods of various hand-building techniques. All students will be required to produce a project in each of these methods: pinch pot, coil, slab, press mold, and function sculpture. Course fee: $50.

ART 107 (3 credits)

Drawing I

This course is designed for the beginning drawing student. It is a studio course in how to draw and how to appreciate drawing. Its main purpose is to open up the world of drawing and the confidence that is then achieved. It is a learnable skill that takes ambition, interest and discipline. Course fee: $50.

ART 108 (3 credits)

Sculpture

This course is designed for the beginning sculpture student. This course will teach the beginning steps to becoming an accomplished stone carver. Students will learn important values pertaining to sculptural design; the focus will be based on Indigenous American imagery. Course fee: $50.

ART 109 (3 credits)

Watercolor Painting

This course teaches watercolor techniques and fundamentals. Students will also learn some basic drawing skills which are necessary for the course. Emphasis will be on landscape and contemporary Indigenous American subjects. Course fee: $50.

ART 110 (3 credits)

Acrylic and Oil Painting

This course will provide a foundation in painting. Students will learn basic fundamentals, as well as technical skills. Creativity and composition, along with the study of traditional painting, will be strongly emphasized. Students will also learn of the contributions of great Indigenous American painters who paved the way for painting enthusiasts of the 20th century. Course fee: $50.

ART 113 (2 credits)

Jingle Dress

This course will teach traditional jingle dress making. Students will learn the history of the jingle dress along with technical and traditional methods to making a jingle dress. Course fee: $60.

ART 114 (2 credits)

Star Quilt Making

This course provides the foundation for making a star quilt. The course will teach traditional knowledge and technical skills required to complete a star quilt. Course fee: $60.

ART 116 (3 credits)

Introduction to Beadwork

This is a beginning course teaching the basics to becoming a successful beadwork artist. Traditional appliqué will be the focus along with other beadwork techniques and hand sewing methods. Course fee: $60.

ART 204 (3 credits)

Moccasin Making

This course introduces students to the traditional practice and history of Ojibwe-style puckered, round-toe moccasin making. Students will have an opportunity to work with smoke-tanned moose hide (a traditional material), with a selection of seed beads. They will learn the traditional practice of designing an Ojibwe floral pattern, as well as appliqué stitch beadwork and hand-stitching of the moccasin. Documentary notes and diagrams of each stage of the process will be required. Prerequisite: ART 116 or instructor approval. Course fee: $60.

ENGL 200 (3 credits)

Literature and the Environment

This course explores the concept of "environment" through different literary modes and examines the historical development of the environmentalist movement in North America. Emphasis will be placed upon reading, critical thinking, and writing in MLA style format. Prerequisites: ENGL 102.

ENGL 220 (3 credits)

Creative Writing

This course is an introduction to the study of the forms and styles of poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction, and other genres, with practice in a workshop format. Prerequisite: ENGL 101.

ENGL 299 (3 credits)

Special Topics in Literature

This course is an intensive study of a particular genre of literature such as autobiography, science fiction, the novel, poetry, short story, and travel narrative. Prerequisites: ENGL 102.

PHIL 200 (3 credits)

Indigenous American Philosophy

This course is an introduction to the philosophical worldview of the people of Leech Lake and other Indigenous peoples of North America. Content area includes study of ontology, epistemology, and ethics; creation stories and myths; how Indigenous American philosophy is affected by historical events; and how Indigenous Americans have tried to solve philosophical issues, past and present.

ANI 200 (3 credits)

Indigenous American Leadership

This course allows each student to build a personal vision of and commitment to community engagement. Students will explore concepts of "leadership" in society and in Anishinaabe communities. Through several active learning modules, students will gain confidence through achievement in identifying community concerns, developing and doing service-related projects, and reflecting actively on their experience. Emphasis will be on Anishinaabe philosophies, communication and behavior.

HIS 150 (3 credits)

History of Leech Lake

This course is a survey of Leech Lake history from an Indigenous perspective; includes history of the land and people of pre-contact America; the interaction of Americans, Europeans, and indigenous peoples during exploration and colonization; development of Ojibwe culture and philosophy; founding of the reservation and the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Inc.; and growth of cultural tensions. Includes discussions of the increasingly diverse make-up of the Leech Lake population and communities, and emphasizes the development of analytical skills focusing on reading, oral presentation, and writing.

SOC 200 (3 credits)

Indigenous American Women

This course studies the role of Indigenous women in traditional and contemporary societies and the consequences of colonization on the lives of women. Examination of Indigenous female gender roles and spiritual relationship to family and community, with special emphasis on social change and interpretations of indigenous femininity in American society.

BIO 200 (3 credits)

Ethno-biology

This course examines two worldviews of understanding the natural world: Western scientific analysis and the Anishinaabe perspective. Laboratory and empirical analysis will be integrated with cultural values, traditions, and techniques to deliver a holistic and intimate knowledge of the natural world. This course will explore the cycles of the natural world and how all living things are related and maintain balance in their respective communities.

BIO 140 (3 credits)

Ecology

This course examines relationship between living and non-living things that make up the natural world. Includes natural biochemical processes, interaction between plants and animals, predator-prey relationships, and seasonal cycles.

BIO 204 (3 credits)

Environmental Science

This course introduces biological, ecological, chemical, physical, and social principles underlying environmental issues. Special emphasis will be placed on Indigenous values pertaining to the environment, and to the effects of modern technology on the environment. Examination of the impacts of human activities and the technological options for environmental protection are researched.

CHEM 111 (4 credits)

General Chemistry I & Lab

This course is an in-depth survey of inorganic chemistry. This course stresses the concepts and language of chemistry, including periodic properties, reactions, mathematics and algebraic manipulation of existing formulas, physical chemistry, and environmental issues dealing with the topic of atmospheric gases and surface groundwater. Lecture and laboratory Prerequisite: CHEM 100 or equivalent

BIO 125 (3 credits)

Wildlife Management

This course is an introduction to wildlife management practices of wildlife species within the bio-region of Leech Lake Reservation and Northern Minnesota. Stresses the cultural significance of animal life and compares different understandings and economic practices of wildlife management expressed through modern wildlife management and tribal practices.

BIO 130 (4 credits)

Wildlife Biology

This course encompasses the whole spectrum of wild creatures and how they interrelate to each other and their environment which affect them. The cultural significance of animals to Indigenous peoples will also be addressed. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 111.

FOR 101 (3 credits)

Introduction to Forestry

This course provides an overview of forest systems around the world, with special emphasis placed on the forests of northern Minnesota. The material presented introduces forest management, traditional and non-timber forest uses and forest ecosystems. Students are expected to participate in field trips to view forest management practices and uses of the forest. Offered every semester. No prerequisites.

ITECH 150 (3 credits)

Computer Applications II

This course focuses on expanding the student's understanding, use, and integration of office productivity tools and integrating those tools into projects. Emphasis will be on word processing, spreadsheets, databases, and presentation graphics software, but may also include other relevant topics. Prerequisite: ITECH 100 or equivalent.

ITECH 190 (3 credits)

Introduction to Computer Science

This course provides a broad introduction to computer science. Topics include programming, hardware, artificial intelligence, and the history and impact of computers. Prerequisite: ITECH 150.

MATH 170 (3 credits)

Statistics

This course is an introductory course intended to give students a broad background in the use of statistics in a variety of disciplines. Topics include the study of descriptive and inferential statistics, probability, normal and binomial distributions, hypothesis testing, chi-square methods, correlation and regression, and analysis of variance. Students will learn to use one or more current statistical software programs. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or Math 150 with a grade of C or better.

BIO 202 (4 credits)

Human Anatomy & Physiology

This course will examine the structure, function, and development of the human body. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: BIO 111.

BIO 210 (4 credits)

Botany I: Plant Form and Function

This course will focus on the anatomy and physiology of plants, fungi, and mosses with an emphasis on plant growth and development, photosynthesis, respiration, nutrition and reproduction. Flora of the bioregion of Leech Lake and Northern Minnesota will be discussed along with the Anishinaabe understanding of plants and how they interrelate culturally to the people of Leech Lake.

BIO 285 (3 credits)

Remote Sensing

This course is an introduction to Remote Sensing principles and interpretation through the use of satellite imagery. Students will use Remote Sensing techniques to study the Leech Lake area. Interpretation and significance of images will be discussed.

BIO 291 (3 credits)

Indigenous Science

This course helps students develop a dualistic understanding, both cultural and Western scientific, of the natural world. A study of the ecological phenomenon or natural processes reflected in many Anishinaabe traditions and ceremonies. Cultural values, integrated with science, will allow students to critically analyze, from an evolved indigenous world view, contemporary environmental problems such as deforestation, ozone depletion, genetic engineering, climate change, and biodiversity.

BIO 294 (1 - 3 credits)

Science Research Project I

This course gives students the opportunity to explore and work on scientific research either locally or abroad. Students will be exposed to the scientific method as defined and accepted within the scientific community. Progress reports and a final report are required for completion. Research project and time frame are arranged by science faculty. Instructor approval is required for enrollment in this course. Arranged by faculty

BIO 295 (1 - 3 credits)

Science Research Project II

This course gives students the opportunity to explore and work on scientific research either locally or abroad. Students will be exposed to the scientific method as defined and excepted within the scientific community. Progress reports and a final report are required for completion. Research project and time frame are arranged by science faculty. Instructor approval is required for enrollment in this course. Arranged by faculty Prerequisite: Successful completion of BIO 294.

BIO 297 (1 credits)

Biology Internship

This course gives students the opportunity to work in government or private industrial scientific research programs, either locally or abroad. Progress reports and final report required for completion. Arranged by faculty.

MATH 215 (3 credits)

Trigonometry

This course covers right triangle and unit circle definitions of trigonometric functions, graphs of trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions with transformations, trigonometric identities, Law of Sines and Law of Cosines applications of trigonometry, solving trigonometric equations, and polar coordinates. Prerequisite: An appropriate score on the Mathematics Placement Test or MATH 155 with a grade of C or better.

FOR 110 (4 Credits)

Woodland Plants

This course incorporates ecology, Ojibwemonin, and art to study fifty woodland plant species. Students will learn to identify plant families by their characteristics, recognize scientific and Ojibwe names for local plants, and visit various woodland ecosystems. Offered fall semester. No prereqs.

FOR 130 (2 Credits)

Intro to Field and GIS Skills

This course provides field experience in map reading, compass use, GPS and map use, along with an introduction to GIS skills. Students will be outdoors and in computer labs and need to come prepared based upon the schedule. Offered spring semester. No prereqs.

FOR 210 (4 Credits)

Freshwater Studies

This course examines the connections between healthy forests and healthy waters. A strong emphasis is placed on the ecology of lake systems, particularly in northern Minnesota. Nutrient cycling, aquatic food webs and an introduction to species interactions are covered. Two local field trips are required as part of this course. Offered fall semester. Pre-req – BIO 140.

FOR 230 (3 Credits)

Dendrology

This course focuses on the study of important tree species including identification, geographic range, habitat, importance, and distinguishing characteristics. Students will develop a portfolio of tree species for their final project. Field identification is required in both leaf on and leaf off conditions for local tree species and selected shrubs. Offered spring semester.

FOR 240 (2 Credits)

Survey and Measurement

This course provides practice in survey methods and measurements typically conducted in natural resource fields. Students will identify projects with the help of the instructor and collect data, utilize spreadsheets, analyze data and provide summary reports. Recommend that college algebra be taken prior to this course. Offered fall semester.

FOR 260 (3 Credits)

GIS Applications

This course introduces Geographic Information Systems concepts and ideas. Course involves learning how to use ESRI’s GIS software ArcMap and ArcCatalog. Basic tools and concepts will be covered with projects geared towards basic maps and basic GIS concepts. Offered spring semester. Prereq – FOR 130.

PSCI 110 (4 Credits)

Intro to Earth Science & Lab

This course introduces the earth sciences as examined through the central concepts of geology, meteorology, oceanography, and the solar system. Each of these topics will be interpreted within the context of the earth’s materials and how they interact within the interior and surface. Lecture and laboratory.

PSCI 150 (3 Credits)

Indigenous Astronomy

This course examines the history of astronomy, the science of stellar and solar system formation, the evolution of stars and galaxies, and modern cosmology and the fate of the universe. Special emphasis will be place on the scientific and cultural knowledge of astronomy relative to various Indigenous groups of the Americas, including Ojibwe, Lakota, Pawnee, Maya, and other indigenous nations. Lecture and laboratory